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Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, ; 23 (9 A)
This book presents a comprehensive account of the concepts of Environmental Studies compulsory course for all undergraduate streams. During the past three decades, there has been an explosion of books on environmental problems. However, this book is different in a sense that it approaches the various environmental issues with an enigma in mind. Written in question-answer format, it is easy for the student to directly address the subject area and understand it to the point. The main objective of the book is to improve the knowledge and concern towards preservation of our environment.
This book will be ideal as a text for students, and will also be of interest to researchers and consultants in the environmental sciences. It will be equally beneficial to the candidates preparing for various competitive examinations. It is an intracellular protein but it had been detected in pIasma samples of the cancer patients as well.
We identified 51 genes with altered methylation status for Chinese hyper: 50, hypo: 1 , 22 for Japanese hyper: 22, hypo: 0 , 8 for Korean hyper: 8, hypo: 0 , 2 for Indian hyper: 2, hypo: 0 , and 2 for Iranian hyper: 2, hypo: 0 populations. Examining these population specific genes altered methylation with that of transcriptome and proteome data, we could determine only 3 of the genes GADD45A , UPK1A , and C2orf40 in Chinese 15 in transcriptome, 3 in proteome , 1 TIMP3 in Japanese 3 in transcriptome, 1 in proteome , 1 CLDN4 in Korean 4 in transcriptome, 1 in proteome , but none in Indian and Iranian populations that were linked with altered transcriptomic and proteomic status.
We could find 6 genes with altered histone modifications for Chinese Acetylation 1; phosphorylation 6, deacetylation 1, gene PTK6 has both Deacetylation, Phosphorylation evidence , 4 for Japanese Acetylation 3; phosphorylation 1, deacetylation 0 , 1 for Korean Acetylation 0; phosphorylation 1, deacetylation 0 , and none for Indian and Iranian populations no HM studies in these two. Examining these population specific genes altered HM with that of transcriptome and proteome data, we could determine only 3 of the genes in Chinese 0 in transcriptome, 3 in proteome , 1 in Japanese 0 in transcriptome, 1 in proteome , 1 in Korean 0 in transcriptome, 1 in proteome , link with altered proteomic status.
However, none of the population specific gene could link to transcriptomic changes. The miRNA entries were also checked for one to many mappings to their target genes, as a single miRNA can have more than one target gene s. A total of miRNAs were studied, some of those were repetitive due to the redundancy of their respective target genes. The number of target genes for these cannot be accurately estimated due to the large number of target genes for a single miRNA species. The populations included in the study included Chinese, Japanese, and Iranian.
Upon comparing miRNA target gene regulation with that of transcriptomic and proteomic regulation data, we found two genes to show consistency in regulation status between miRNA transcriptomic and proteomic data.
In the Chinese population, hsa-miRa was found to be downregulated. Similarly, another gene FSCN1 had upregulated transcriptomic and proteomic status, is a target gene for hsa-miRb, which was found to be downregulated in the Chinese population. This corroborates the miRNA-gene-silencing mechanism, which is reflected in this analysis.
South Africa: Floor-crossing 2002-2009
Data analysis for population specific overrepresented GO terms. Data analysis for population specific overrepresented GO terms corresponding to A biological process, B molecular function and C cellular component. In the scatterplot the semantically similar GO terms remain close together in cluster and are labeled with the representative GO term with the highest enrichment score. The bubbles corresponding to common GO terms between different populations are adjusted in two-dimensional space by adding or subtracting 0.
Certain over-represented GO terms were found to overlap between populations Fig. However the proteins expansions added by PEPPER algorithm constitutes a complex interaction network that connects together almost all of our input protein coding genes. And the constitutive activation of STAT3 and CCND1 overexpression is accounted for the proliferation, migration and invasion in gastric cancer cells In summary, based on the PPI network analysis we obtained a global aspect of interaction networks between the candidate genes shortlisted genes from the GO enrichment analysis and other key protein-coding genes that could be involved in ESCC biogenesis.
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Hexagonal red nodes correspond to proteins that were added by PEPPER algorithm expansions , the red shades of the hexagonal nodes correspond to the scores of relevance computed in the post-processing step. The purple square represents a protein of interest bait , which is STAT3 in this case. The rounded green nodes represent the list of input proteins preys. The green edges represent the initial interactions between the seeds bait and preys.
The red, dark and light blue edges are used to represent the interaction between the seeds and the expansions. Variant rs CC genotype significantly reduced the transcriptional activity of caspase-3 and it was associated with an increased risk of ESCC in the Chinese population Furthermore, CASP3 is downregulated in the Chinese population when a comparison was made between normal versus basal cell hyperplasia 63 , but upregulated in ESCC as compared with adjacent normal tissues Discernibly, some GO terms that may be of significance were unique for certain populations.
One of the genes, GRB2 that contributed to enrich the term, is found overexpressed with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in ESCC where cellular differentiation could be an influencing factor On comparing the genes for which this term was enriched, we found that some of them showed interesting expression levels in correlation with ESCC and literature.
Alcohol consumption is widely known to be a risk factor for ESCC. Six of the test genes were associated with the former term and 3 of the test genes for the latter. Extensive literature review reveals that the alcohol metabolism pathway has two steps - ethanol oxidation, i. The second step is catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2 72 , it is found that variants of these genes affect the catalytic rate of the reaction in both steps It is these variants that are associated with risk of ESCC.
Acetaldehyde is a known carcinogen. Metabolism related aspects also contribute to malignancies including EC. In recent years, relations have been established between EC types and metabolism associated parameters such as body mass index, and blood pressure. The underlying mechanisms behind association or role of obesity with ECs must be further explored in light of molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, estrogen and obesity related genes Interestingly adipose tissue has the ability to influences the development of tumor, which is dependent on secretor product adipokines and cytokines secreted by adipocytes and inflammatory cells, respectively An abundant supply of lipids by the adipocytes in tumor-microenvironment, supports progression and uncontrolled growth of the tumor In addition to these, to establish what are common factors among Chinese and India population, a comparative analysis is required to establish common pre-disposing and risk factors achalasia, atrophic gastritis 83 , an infection by cytotoxin-associated gene A CagA -positive Helicobacter pylori 84 , injury to the esophagus, consumption of pickled vegetables, Plummer Vinson syndrome, Chaggas-associated mega-esophagus, and a history of certain head and neck cancers A quick search for the genes and their molecular signatures associated to ESCC in different population groups could be easily seen in 3 steps as shown in Fig.
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The gene function and associated gene ontologies could also easily browsed with the links to GO database. A PubMed link to the reference research article is also made available. Further, upon entering the gene symbol for gene of interest e. In order to overcome, a number of cancer specific database developed including ONCOMINE a cancer microarray database and web-based data-mining platform 86 , pancreatic cancer 87 , 88 , 89 , Breast Cancer Database for breast cancer 90 , 91 , Dragon Database of Genes associated with Prostate Cancer 92 , Renal cancer gene database on renal cancer 93 , HLungDB: an integrated database of human lung cancer research 14 , Cervical Cancer Database on cervical cancer 94 , curatedOvarianDat on Clinically annotated data for the ovarian cancer transcriptome 95 , and Osteosarcoma, a database of osteosarcoma-associated genes Furthermore, there were efforts to make repository to have peptidome a pool of peptides detected in cancer-associated biofluids In an earlier effort, DDEC was developed where a total number of genes were reported.
The database excluded the data derived from high-throughput microarray studies leaving an enormous amount of data not curated for ESCC Genes, miRNAs, proteins, gene promoters, transcription factors, transcription factor-binding sites and the SNPs related to ESCC cancer have been collected and integrated into this system.
Introduction to a Compendium on Regenerative Cardiology
Interestingly, cross-comparison of incidence of ESCC, number of molecular studies and total molecular signature identified between different populations suggests that despite high incidence of ESCC in Iranian and South African population low number of molecular studies lead to low number of molecular signatures identification. This clearly exhibits, a significant number of population specific genes regulation involved in the etiology of ESCC between different populations.
Consolidation of GO analysis results with regulation of molecular signatures captured through our curation process, corroborate mechanism that drive progression of ESCC. Over the course of time, watching the approaches undertaken in human genomics, now research community is urging for an epoch with radical revision of human genomics In the future, we will incorporate more different kinds of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and pharmacogenomics based data in further updates to ESCC ATLAS, so that the database will continue to be an informative and valuable source ESCC associated molecular alterations and serve as a key repository for basic and translational research on ESCC.
The data is provided in an easily available platform for the academic and not-for-profit organizations when exploring the molecular alterations that underlie ESCC. We will continue to review and assess the quality of our information and collection of ESCC-related molecular alterations in the future. For future, one of our goals is to identify the signal transduction pathway events that have significant impact on ESCC tumorigenesis and pathophysiology.
In parallel, we will also catalog and include the downstream molecules of the altered signaling pathway in ESCC to fulfill the requirement towards identification of new drug targets, ESCC genes and novel mechanisms. For accelerating the research beyond geographic borders, between basic biomedical and clinical research in esophageal cancer, it is of utmost importance to have upcoming clinical and biological data on ESCC in a single repository like ESCC ATLAS. Hence we will invite researchers in the field of ESCC to deposit their data so that along with them, rest of the world also have access to the recent data on ESCC.
All data generated and analyzed during our study are included in this published article and its supplementary information file-Dataset 1,2,3 and 4. Zeng, H. Esophageal cancer statistics in China, Estimates based on cancer registries.
Jemal, A. Global patterns of cancer incidence and mortality rates and trends. EPI Gholipour, C. A histopathological study of esophageal cancer on the western side of the Caspian littoral from to Islami, F. Epidemiologic features of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers in Northeastern Iran. Tran, G. Prospective study of risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers in the Linxian general population trial cohort in China.
Koca, T. Dietary and demographical risk factors for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the Eastern Anatolian region of Turkey where upper gastrointestinal cancers are endemic. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 16 , — Domper Arnal, M. Esophageal cancer: Risk factors, screening and endoscopic treatment in Western and Eastern countries.
He, Z. Prevalence and risk factors for esophageal squamous cell cancer and precursor lesions in Anyang, China: a population-based endoscopic survey. Nasrollahzadeh, D. Opium, tobacco, and alcohol use in relation to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high-risk area of Iran.
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