Word quickly reached New York City. Oliver Daniel telephoned and invited the pair to "produce a group of short compositions for the October concert sponsored by the American Composers Alliance and Broadcast Music, Inc. After some hesitation, we agreed. Henry Cowell placed his home and studio in Woodstock, New York, at our disposal.
With the borrowed equipment in the back of Ussachevsky's car, we left Bennington for Woodstock and stayed two weeks. In late September, , the travelling laboratory reached Ussachevsky's living room in New York, where we eventually completed the compositions. The concert included Luening's Fantasy in Space —"an impressionistic virtuoso piece"  using manipulated recordings of flute—and Low Speed , an "exotic composition that took the flute far below its natural range.
After several concerts caused a sensation in New York City, Ussachevsky and Luening were invited onto a live broadcast of NBC's Today Show to do an interview demonstration—the first televised electroacoustic performance. Luening described the event: "I improvised some [flute] sequences for the tape recorder. Ussachevsky then and there put them through electronic transformations.
In , Stockhausen composed his Elektronische Studie II —the first electronic piece to be published as a score. In , more experimental and electronic studios began to appear. The score for Forbidden Planet , by Louis and Bebe Barron ,  was entirely composed using custom built electronic circuits and tape recorders in In it publicly played the Colonel Bogey March , of which no known recordings exist, only the accurate reconstruction. The oldest known recordings of computer-generated music were played by the Ferranti Mark 1 computer, a commercial version of the Baby Machine from the University of Manchester in the autumn of The impact of computers continued in Lejaren Hiller and Leonard Isaacson composed Illiac Suite for string quartet , the first complete work of computer-assisted composition using algorithmic composition.
Hiller postulated that a computer could be taught the rules of a particular style and then called on to compose accordingly. Vocoder technology was also a major development in this early era. An important technological development of that year was the invention of the Clavivox synthesizer by Raymond Scott with subassembly by Robert Moog. The work was realized at the WDR studio in Cologne.
Two musicians performed on a piano, one in the traditional manner, the other playing on the strings, frame, and case. Two other performers used tape to unite the presentation of live sounds with the future of prerecorded materials from later on and its past of recordings made earlier in the performance. These were fertile years for electronic music—not just for academia, but for independent artists as synthesizer technology became more accessible.
By this time, a strong community of composers and musicians working with new sounds and instruments was established and growing. This piece existed in two versions—one for 4-channel tape, and the other for tape with human performers. This new approach, which he termed 'moment form,' resembles the 'cinematic splice' techniques in early twentieth century film.
The theremin had been in use since the s but it attained a degree of popular recognition through its use in science-fiction film soundtrack music in the s e. One of the most influential British electronic artists in this period  was Workshop staffer Delia Derbyshire , who is now famous for her electronic realisation of the iconic Doctor Who theme , composed by Ron Grainer.
Milton Babbitt composed his first electronic work using the synthesizer—his Composition for Synthesizer —which he created using the RCA synthesizer at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center. For Babbitt, the RCA synthesizer was a dream come true for three reasons. First, the ability to pinpoint and control every musical element precisely. Second, the time needed to realize his elaborate serial structures were brought within practical reach. Third, the question was no longer "What are the limits of the human performer?
The collaborations also occurred across oceans and continents. Twelve speakers surrounded the audience, four speakers were mounted on a rotating, mobile-like construction above. In , enabled by seed money from the National Endowment for the Arts , a new Audium opened, designed floor to ceiling for spatial sound composition and performance.
In this approach, the composition of spatial manipulation is dependent on the location of the speakers and usually exploits the acoustical properties of the enclosure. A well-known example of the use of Moog's full-sized Moog modular synthesizer is the Switched-On Bach album by Wendy Carlos , which triggered a craze for synthesizer music. Pietro Grossi was an Italian pioneer of computer composition and tape music, who first experimented with electronic techniques in the early sixties.
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Grossi was a cellist and composer, born in Venice in There were newspaper reports from America and England early and recently that computers may have played music earlier, but thorough research has debunked these stories as there is no evidence to support the newspaper reports some of which were obviously speculative. Research has shown that people speculated about computers playing music, possibly because computers would make noises,  but there is no evidence that they actually did it.
In it publicly played the " Colonel Bogey March "  of which no known recordings exist. However, CSIRAC played standard repertoire and was not used to extend musical thinking or composition practice which is current computer-music practice. The first music to be performed in England was a performance of the British National Anthem that was programmed by Christopher Strachey on the Ferranti Mark I, late in Later that year, short extracts of three pieces were recorded there by a BBC outside broadcasting unit: the National Anthem, " Ba, Ba Black Sheep , and " In the Mood " and this is recognised as the earliest recording of a computer to play music.
This recording can be heard at this Manchester University site. Researchers at the University of Canterbury , Christchurch declicked and restored this recording in and the results may be heard on SoundCloud. The intelligent-instrument name refers to the program's built-in knowledge of chord and scale convention and stylistic constraints.
She continued to update the program through Macintosh OS 9, and as of [update] , it remained available for purchase or demo download from her Web site. The late s, s and s also saw the development of large mainframe computer synthesis. Musical improvisation often plays a large role in the performance of this music.
In Europe in , Karlheinz Stockhausen composed Mikrophonie I for tam-tam , hand-held microphones, filters, and potentiometers, and Mixtur for orchestra, four sine-wave generators, and four ring modulators. In he composed Mikrophonie II for choir, Hammond organ, and ring modulators. In —67, Reed Ghazala discovered and began to teach " circuit bending "—the application of the creative short circuit, a process of chance short-circuiting, creating experimental electronic instruments, exploring sonic elements mainly of timbre and with less regard to pitch or rhythm, and influenced by John Cage 's aleatoric music [ sic ] concept.
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In the s,   Japanese electronic musical instruments began influencing the international music industry. In , Ace Tone founder Ikutaro Kakehashi patented a preset rhythm-pattern generator using diode matrix circuit  similar to the Seeburg 's prior U. The rhythm patterns could also be cascaded together by pushing multiple rhythm buttons simultaneously, and the possible combination of rhythm patterns were more than a hundred.
Turntablism has origins in the invention of direct-drive turntables. Early belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for turntablism, since they had a slow start-up time, and they were prone to wear-and-tear and breakage, as the belt would break from backspin or scratching.
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It eliminated belts, and instead employed a motor to directly drive a platter on which a vinyl record rests. In Jamaica , a form of popular electronic music emerged in the s, dub music , rooted in sound system culture. Dub music was pioneered by studio engineers, such as Sylvan Morris, King Tubby , Errol Thompson , Lee "Scratch" Perry , and Scientist , producing reggae -influenced experimental music with electronic sound technology, in recording studios and at sound system parties.
Despite the limited electronic equipment available to dub pioneers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry, their experiments in remix culture were musically cutting-edge. In the late s, pop and rock musicians , including the Beach Boys and the Beatles , began to use electronic instruments, like the theremin and Mellotron , to supplement and define their sound. In his book Electronic and Experimental Music , Thom Holmes recognises the Beatles' recording " Tomorrow Never Knows " as the song that "ushered in a new era in the use of electronic music in rock and pop music" due to the band's incorporation of tape loops and reversed and speed-manipulated tape sounds.
Gershon Kingsley 's " Popcorn " was the first international electronic dance hit in Instrumental prog rock was particularly significant in continental Europe, allowing bands like Kraftwerk , Tangerine Dream , Can , and Faust to circumvent the language barrier. Ambient dub was pioneered by King Tubby and other Jamaican sound artists, using DJ-inspired ambient electronics, complete with drop-outs, echo, equalization and psychedelic electronic effects. It featured layering techniques and incorporated elements of world music , deep basslines and harmonic sounds. Electronic rock was also produced by several Japanese musicians, including Isao Tomita 's Electric Samurai: Switched on Rock , which featured Moog synthesizer renditions of contemporary pop and rock songs,  and Osamu Kitajima 's progressive rock album Benzaiten Dub music influenced electronic musical techniques later adopted by hip hop music , when Jamaican immigrant DJ Kool Herc in the early s introduced Jamaica's sound system culture and dub music techniques to America.
One such technique that became popular in hip hop culture was playing two copies of the same record on two turntables in alternation, extending the b-dancers ' favorite section. After the arrival of punk rock , a form of basic electronic rock emerged, increasingly using new digital technology to replace other instruments. The definition of MIDI and the development of digital audio made the development of purely electronic sounds much easier.
Synth-pop sometimes used synthesizers to replace all other instruments, until the style began to fall from popularity in the mids. Released in by Moog Music , the Mini-Moog was among the first widely available, portable and relatively affordable synthesizers.
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It became once the most widely used synthesizer at that time in both popular and electronic art music. In , the Japanese company Yamaha licensed the algorithms for frequency modulation synthesis FM synthesis from John Chowning , who had experimented with it at Stanford University since Barry Vercoe describes one of his experiences with early computer sounds:.
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