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Contributor Information Jose A. Facile pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass at high loadings in room temperature ionic liquids. Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars: Methods for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for efficient hydrolysis and biofuel production.
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Ind Eng Chem Res. Visualization of biomass solubilization and cellulose regeneration during ionic liquid pretreatment of switchgrass. Comparison of dilute acid and ionic liquid pretreatment of switchgrass: Influence of physico-chemical changes on enzymatic digestibility of ionic liquid and AFEX pretreated corn stover. Comparison of the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on recalcitrance of agave bagasse and switchgrass.
Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production using ionic liquid process. Complete dissolution and partial delignification of wood in the ionic liquid 1-ethylmethylimidazolium acetate. Deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass with ionic liquids. Understanding cost drivers and economic potential of two variants of ionic liquid pretreatment for cellulosic biofuel production.
Economic feasibility and environmental life cycle assessment of ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock in Pacific Northwest U. J Renew Sustain Energ. Scale-up of ionic liquid-based fractionation of single and mixed feedstocks. Impact of mixed feedstocks and feedstock densification on ionic liquid pretreatment efficiency.
Facile and simple pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse without size reduction using renewable ionic liquidswater mixtures. Aqueous ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents for cellulosic biomass pretreatment and saccharification. There is little doubt that Suhrawardi is greatly indebted to the Muslim philosophers, especially Ibn Sina, for the formulation of many of his ideas. Moreover, inasmuch as he is a Sufi as well as a philosopher or, more properly speaking, a theosophist, 10 he is in debt, both for spiritual inspiration and for his doctrines, to the great chain of Sufi masters before him.
More specifically he is indebted to Hallaj whom he quotes so often and to al-Ghazali whose Mishkat al-Anwar played so important a role in his doctrine of the relation of light to the Imam. Finally, he was influenced directly by the vast tradition of Hermeticism which is itself the remains of ancient Egyptian, Chaldaean and Sabaean doctrines metamorphosed within the matrix of Hellenism and is based on the primordial symbolism of alchemy. The concept of the history of philosophy for Suhrawardi and his school is itself of great interest.
This school identifies philosophy with wisdom rather than with rational systematization.
Philosophy for it does not begin with Plato and Aristotle; rather, it ends with them. Aristotle, by putting wisdom in a rationalistic dress, limited its perspective and separated it from the unitive wisdom of the earlier sages. From the Ishraqi point of view, Hermes or the Prophet Idris is the father of philosophy, having received it as revelation from heaven.
He was followed by a chain of sages in Greece and in ancient Persia and later in Islam which unified the wisdom of previous civilizations in its milieu. The chain of transmission of ishraqi doctrines, which must be understood symbolically rather than only historically, may be schematized as follows:. In the introduction to his Hikmat al-lshraq , Suhrawardi states explicitly the nature of ishraqi wisdom and its relation to ancient doctrines. All of its material has not been assembled by thought and reasoning; rather, intellectual intuition, contemplation, and ascetic practices have played an important role in it.
Whoever is a traveller salik on the way to truth is my companion and a help on this Path. The procedure of the master of philosophy, the divine Plato, was the same, and the sages who preceded Plato in time like Hermes, the father of philosophy, followed the same path.
Since sages of the past, because of the ignorance of the masses, expressed their sayings in secret symbols rumuz , the refutations which have been made against them have concerned the exterior of these sayings and not their real intentions. One must never think that the light and darkness which appear in our expressions are the same as those used by the infidel Magi, or the heretical Manichaeans for they finally involve us in idolatry shirk and dualism.
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The Arabic words ishraq meaning illumination and mashriq meaning the east are both derived etymologically from the root sharq meaning the rising of the sun. Moreover, the adjective illuminative, mushriqiyyah , and Oriental, mashriqiyyah , are written in exactly the same way in Arabic.
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This symbolic identification of the Orient with light which is inherent in the Arabic language and is employed often by the Ishraqi sages, has given rise to many difficulties in the interpretations of that wisdom which is both illuminative and Oriental. Already in his Mantiq al-Mashriqiyyin most of which is lost, Ibn Sina refers to an Oriental wisdom which is superior to the commonly accepted Peripatetic masha'i philosophy. Since the famous article of Nallino, 16 it has become common opinion that the reading is Oriental and has nothing to do with illumination.
Suhrawardi writes that Ibn Sina wanted to recapture Oriental philosophy but did not have access to the necessary sources.
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The unification of the meaning of illumination and the Orient in the term ishraq is connected with the symbolism of the sun which rises in the Orient and which illuminates all things so that the land of light is identified with that of gnosis and illumination. It is the land of knowledge which liberates man from himself and from the world, knowledge which is combined with purification and sanctity.
In a historical sense, ishraqi wisdom is connected with pre-Aristotelian metaphysics. Ibn Wahshiyyah in his Nabataean Agriculture mentions a class of Egyptian priests who were the children of the sister of Hermes and who were called Ishraqiyyun. In reading the texts of Suhrawardi one is particularly struck by the large number of quotations from the Qur'an, Hadith, and the sayings of earlier Sufis and by the profound transformation into the Islamic mould of all the diverse ideas which Suhrawardi employs. It is by virtue of such an integration and transformation that the ishraqi wisdom could come to play such a major role in Shi'ism.
In the introduction to Hikmat al-Ishraq , Suhrawardi outlines the hierarchy of those who know in a manner which demonstrates how he integrates ancient wisdom into the perspective of Islam. The sage who does not involve himself with discursive philosophy but remains content with gnosis, like Hallaj, Bistami, and Tustari. The philosopher who is acquainted with discursive philosophy but is a stranger to gnosis like Farabi or Ibn Sina. Above all these degrees is that of the Pole Qutb or Leader Imam who is the head of the spiritual hierarchy and of his representatives khulafa'.
The stations of wisdom are also described in a purely Sufi fashion as degrees of penetration into the divine unity expressed by the shahadah. In his initiatory treatise, Safir-i Simurgh Song of the Griffin , Suhrawardi enumerates five degrees of unity The formulations of Sufism become, therefore, the framework of his classification of knowledge into which he tries to place the heritage of universal gnosis and philosophy inherited by Islam. A similar division of the cosmos occurs in the writings of Suhrawardi.
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